The extensive temperate grass­lands, once roamed bv nomadic herdsmen or by hunters, have now become sit~s of permanent ranches where large number of cattle, sheep, goats, and horses are kept. Reindeer are also kept on ranches in the sub-Arctic lands of Siberia.

In this type of agriculture, vegetative cover is continuous, there is no migration, ranches are scientifically managed, animals are raised for commercial purposes, and towns and communications are developed., In these aspects it differs from nomadic herding. USA, New Zealand and Argentina are known for well-developed commercial ranch­ing.’ The tropical savannas, e.g., on the Campos and llanos of South America, Mexico, central and southern Africa and tropical Australia also practise it to an extent.

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